power quality, harmonics, harmonics sources, harmonic distortion sources identification methods


The presence of non-linear loads and the increase in the number of systems of distributed generation of electricity lead to a distortion of the voltage and current waveform in distribution systems (DS), that is, to the appearance of harmonics of current and voltage. In this case, the power system is obliged to supply electricity only to the fundamental frequency of 50 Hz with constant amplitude. Power supply organizations usually disclaim responsibility for the causes of harmonics by introducing standards or recommendations for limiting the levels of harmonic components in the points of common connection of consumers. These documents do not take into account the composition of DS equipment and, accordingly, the damage from these harmonics for network equipment and consumer equipment. The urgency of the work is due to the need to reliably identify the sources of harmonic distortion in the supply system for the effective functioning of the system of penalties and fines and to more effectively determine the list of measures to improve the electric power quality. The paper reviews the existing methods for distortion sources identification in supply systems. Their basic principles and application features are considered.


1. Shidlovsky A. K., Kuznetsov V. G., Nikolaenko V. G. Economic evaluation of the effects of reducing the power quality in modern power systems. К.: Preprint 253 IED AS Ukrainian SSR, 1981. 48 p.

2. IEEE Std 1459-2010. Definitions for the measurement of electric power quantities under sinusoidal, nonsinusoidal, balanced, or unbalanced conditions. March 2010. IEEE Standard 1459. 40 p.

3. RD 153-34.0-15.501-01. Methodological guidelines for monitoring and analysis of quality of electric energy in general purpose power supply systems. Part 2. Analysis of the power quality. [Approved 2003-05-01]. M .: Energoservice, 2003. 63 p.

4. Ferrero A., Menchetti A., Sasdelli R. Measurement of the Electric Power Quality and Related Problems. European Transactions on Electric Power. 1996. V. 6. No 6. P. 401–406.

5. Czarnecki L. S., Świetlicki T. Power in nonsinusoidal networks, their analysis, interpretation and measurement. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Measur. 1990. V. 39. No 2. P. 340–345.

6. Emanuel A. E. On the Assessment of Harmonic Pollution. IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery. 1995. V. 10. No 3. P. 1693–1698.

7. Rens P. J., Swart P. H. On Techniques for the Localization of Multiple Distortion Sources in Three-Phase Networks: Time Domain Verification. ETEP. 2001. V. 11. No 5. P. 317–322.

8. Swart P. H., Case M. J., Van Wyk J. D. On Techniques for Localization of Sources Producing Distortion in Electric Power Networks. ETEP. 1994. V. 4. No 6. P. 485–490.

9. Herrera R. S., Pérez A., Salmerón P., Vázquez J. R., Litrán S. P. Distortion Sources Identification in Electric Power Systems. Department of Electrical Engineering E.P .S., Huelva University . URL: (дата звернення: 20.01.2016).

10. Heydt G. T. Identification of Harmonic Sources by a State Estimation Technique. IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery. 1989. V. 4. No 1. P. 569–576.

11. Beites L. F., Alvarez M., Díaz A. Sensor optimum location algorithm for estimating harmonic sources injection in electrical networks. International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’14). Cordoba, Spain, April 8–10, 2014. URL:'14/315.14-Beites.pdf (дата звернення: 26.10.2020).

12. Zhelezko Yu. S. Power losses. Reactive power. Power Quality: A Guide to Practical Calculations. M.: ENAS, 2009. 456 p.

13. Zhelezko Yu. S. Connection of consumers to general-purpose power grids and contractual conditions in terms of power quality. Electromagnetic Compatibility Technologies. 2003. No1. P. 22–30.

14. Thunberg E., Söder L. A Norton Approach to Distribution Network Modeling for Harmonic Studies. IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery. 1999. V. 14. No1. P. 272–277.

15. Fedosov D. S. Development of a method for assessing the impact of consumers on nonsinusoidality and asymmetry of voltages in the electrical network: diss. ... PhD. Irkutsk, 2014. 195 p.

16.Tulsky V. N. Development of the methodology for detection the actual contribution in assessing the quality of electrical energy at the point of common connection: dis .... PhD. М., 2004. 134 p.

17. Saenko Yu. L., Kalyuzhny D. N. Analysis of methods for detection the actual contributions to the decrease of power quality by unbalance and non-sinusoidal voltage. Electrification of transport. 2015. No9. P. 123–133

18. Cristaldi L., Ferrero A. Harmonic power flow analysis for the measurement of the electric power quality. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 1995. V. 14. No3. P. 683–685.

19. Zykin F. A. Detection of the degree of participation of loads in reducing of power quality. Electricity. 1992. No11. P. 13–19.

20. Chang G. W., Chen C. I., Teng Y. F. An application of radial basis function neural network for harmonics detection. 2008 Harmonics and Quality of Power 13th International Conference. Wollongong, Australia. 2008. P. 124–129

21. Xu W., Liu Y. A Method for Determining Customer and Utility Harmonic Contributions at the Point of Common Coupling. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery. 2000. V. 15. No2. P. 804–811.

22. Xu W., Liu X., Liu Y. An investigation on the validity of power direction method for harmonic source determination. IEEE Trans. Power Delivery. 2003. V. 18. No1. P. 214–219.

23. Tanak T., Akagi H. A new method of harmonic power detection based on the instantaneous active power in three-phase circuits. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. 1995. V. 10. No4. P. 1737–1742.

24. Senderovich G. A. Determination of the share participation of subjects in responsibility for violation of voltage balance. Scientific works of Donetsk National Technical University. 2011. No11(186). P. 330–335.

25. Smirnov S. S., Kovernikova L. I. Consumer's contribution to the voltage levels of higher harmonics in the nodes of the distribution systems. Electricity. 1996. No1. P. 58–64.

26. Smirnov S. S. Probabilistic calculation of voltage levels of higher harmonics in a 110–220 kV network feeding large nonlinear loads. Electricity. 2000. No10. P. 25–30.

27. Mayer V. Ya., Zenia, Tkach A. N. Methods for determining the estimated consumer contribution to the value of power quality indicators at the point of common connection to the power system. Electricity. 1993. No10. P. 14–18.

28. Ribeiro P. F. et all. Equipment Producing Harmonics and the Conditions Governing their Connection to the Main Power Supply. CIGRE – Electra. 1989. No123. P. 20–37.

29. Zhezhelenko I.B., Rabinovich M.L., Bozhko V.M. Power quality at industrial enterprises. K: Technics, 1981. 160 p.

30. Lipsky A. M. The quality of power supply of industrial enterprises. K: K: High school., 1985. 160 p.

31.Ivanov B. C. Sokolov V. I. Modes of consumption and power quality of power supply systems of industrial enterprises. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1987. 336 p.

32. Zhelezko Yu. S., Kordyukov E. I., Kurbatskii V. G., ets. Application rules discounts and surcharges to tariffs for power quality. Industrial energy. 1990. No11. P. 52–55.

33.Abramovich B. J. Harmonics filters for the Sellinge converter station. GEC J. Sci. Tech. 1982. V. 48. P. 35–38.

34. Bashkirov O. V., Pershenkov P. P., Tyurin E. A. Detection of the consumer's contribution to the change in power quality indicators. Proceedings of the International Symposium "Reliability and Quality". 2009. Vol. 2. No1. P. 77–79.

35. Srinivasan K. On Separating Customer and Supply Side Harmonic Contributions. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery. 1996. V. 11. No2. P. 1003–1012.

36. Dell ́Aquila A., Marinelli M., Monopoli V. G. , Zanchetta P. New Power-Quality Assessment Criteria for Supply under Unbalanced and Nonsinusoidal Conditions. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery. 2004. V. 19. No3. P. 1284–1290.

37. Yang H. Assessment for Harmonics Emission Level from one particular customer. University of Liege, 1992. 8 p.

38. Mayer V. Ya., Zenia. Methodology for detection the share contributions of the consumer and the energy supplying organization in decrease of power quality. Electricity. 1994. No9. P. 19–24.

39. Smirnov S. S., Kovernikova L. I. Consumer's contribution to the voltage levels of higher harmonics in the nodes of the electrical network. Electricity. 1996. No1. P. 56–64.

40. Kurbatskii VG Power quality and electromagnetic compatibility of technical equipment in power grids. Bryansk: BrSTU, 1999. 220 p.

41. Kartashev I. I., Ponomarenko I. S., Syromyatnikov S. Yu. Detection of the culprit for the decreasing of power quality in payments for electricity. EMAS. 2000. No19. P. 10–12.

42. Kartashev I. I., Ponomarenko I. S. Detection of the culprit of voltage distortions by instrumental control of power quality. Efficiency and power quality of electrical supply of industrial enterprises: Abstracts report International Scientific Conference. Donetsk, 2000. P. 337–340.

43. Gamazin S. I., Pétrovich V. A. On the question of determining the actual contribution of the consumer to the distortion of power quality parameters. Electrician. 2002. No7. С. 47–50.

44. Xu W., Liu Y. A Method for Determining Customer and Utility Harmonic Contributions at the Point of Common Coupling. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery. 2000. V. 15. No2. P. 804–811.

45. Farhoodnea M., Mohamed Azah, Shareef H., Jabbar Khan R. A. An Improved Method for Determining Contribution of Utility and Customer Harmonic Distortions In A Power Distribution System. International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics. 2010. V. 2. No3. P. 204 215.

46. Chaoying C., Xiuling L., Koval D., Xu W., Tayjasanant T. Critical Impedance Method – a New Detecting Harmonic Sources Method in Distribution Systems. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery. 2004. V. 19. No1. P. 288–297. 47. Li C., Xu W., Tayjasanant T. A “critical impedance” – based method for identifying harmonic sources.

IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery. 2004. V. 19. No2. P. 671–678.

Fernandez F. M., Chandramohanan Nair P. S. Method for separation of customer and utility contributions

of harmonics at point of common coupling. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution. 2013. V. 7. No4. P. 374– 381.

49. Vasiliev I. E., Klyuev R. V., Vasiliev E. I. Detection of the actual contribution of the consumer and the system to the non-sinusoidality voltage of non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises on the basis of an active experiment - connecting transformers for parallel operation. Audit and financial analysis. Computer Science and Informatics. 2011. No4. P. 0–4.

50. Abdullah A. R., Peng G. Z., Ghani S. A., Jopri M. H. A New Vector Draft Method for Harmonic Source Detection at Point of Common Coupling. IEEE 8th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO2014). Langkawi, The Jewel of Kedah, Malaysia. 2014. P. 110–114.

51. Adaleev A. S., Korovkin N. V. Method of localization of the source of interference in the electrical circuit. Izvestiya RAN. Energetics. 2009. No4. P. 98 107.

52. Korovkin N. V., Prikhodchenko R. V., Tukhas V. A. Problems of searching a source of interference in general-purpose power grids. Electromagnetic Compatibility Technologies. 2011. No1(36). P. 50–58.

53. Korovkin N.V., Lysenko G.S. Technology of localization of sources of interference in power systems. Izvestiya RAN. Energetics. 2013. No2. P. 121–130.