transactive energy, Microgrid, local energy markets, renewable sources, distributed sources


Due to global concerns about climate change, the deployment of distributed energy resources and electrical and thermal energy storage systems has been accelerated to minimize CO2 emissions. In addition, the need for optimal energy management of these energy resources was emphasized in order to reduce the need for new energy resources. The concept of transactional energy and, accordingly, transactional systems was introduced for modern energy systems as a system of economic and control mechanisms that allow for dynamic balancing of supply and demand in the entire electrical infrastructure using cost as a key indicator. This ensures cost-effective integration of renewable energy sources and creates incentives for investment and innovative renewal of local energy systems, allowing for management of both supply and demand for electricity. The article discusses the architecture of transactional systems and its components. The main objective function of transactional systems is to minimize the total annual costs of the local system, which supports the continuity of energy supply. To estimate the current cost of electricity, it is necessary to have information on the distribution of investments invested in the project before the start of its implementation, between the periods of project implementation. Considered optimization criteria, the use of which depends on specific goals. It is important to use multi-criteria optimization and control methods to determine the structure of the system and the optimal distribution of energy obtained from different sources in order to maximize the efficiency of the entire system, while contributing to the maximum reduction of emissions to the environment, while minimizing the cost of energy production.


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